Print this page
  1. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) (2011) Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to caffeine and increased fat oxidation leading to a reduction in body fat mass (ID 735, 1484), increased energy expenditure leading to a reduction in body weight (ID 1487), increased alertness (ID 736, 1101, 1187, 1485, 1491, 2063, 2103) and increased attention (ID 736, 1485, 1491, 2375) pursuant to Article 13(1) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/20061. EFSA Journal, 9(4):2054.
  2. Nehlig A. (2016) Effects of coffee/caffeine on brain health and disease: What should I tell my patients? Pract Neurol, 16(2):89-95.
  3. Smit H.R. and Rogers P.J. (2000) Effects of low doses of caffeine on cognitive performance, mood and thirst in low and higher caffeine consumers. Psychophymacology, 152:167-173.
  4. Quinlan P.T. et al. (2000) The acute physiological and mood effects of tea and coffee: the role of caffeine level. Pharmacol Biochem Behav, 66(1):19-28.
  5. Schmitt J.A.J. et al. (2005) General methodological considerations for the assessment of nutritional influences on human cognitive functions. Eur J Nutr, 44:459-464.
  6. Einother S.J.L. and Giesbrecht T. (2012) Caffeine as an attention enhancer: reviewing existing assumptions. Psychopharmacology, 225(2):251-274.
  7. Brunyé T.T. et al. (2010) Caffeine modulates attention network function. Brain Cogn, 72:181-8.
  8. Brunyé T.T. et al. (2010) Acute caffeine consumption enhances the executive control of visual attention in habitual consumers. Brain Cogn, 74:186-92.
  9. Brunyé T.T. et al. (2012) Caffeine enhances real-world language processing: Evidence from a proofreading task. J Exp Psychol Appl, 18:95-108.
  10. Dawkins L. et al. (2011) Expectation of having consumed caffeine can improve performance and mood. Appetite, 57:597-600.
  11. Kaasinen V. et al. (2004) Expectation of caffeine induces dopaminergic responses in humans. Eur J Neurosci, 19:2352-6.
  12. Terry P. et al. (2009) Dissociations between motor timing, motor coordination, and time perception after the administration of alcohol or caffeine. Psychopharmacol, (Berl) 202:719-29.
  13. Smith A. et al. (1997) Caffeine and the common cold. J Psychopharmacol, 11:319-24.
  14. Smith A.P. et al. (1990) Effects of caffeine given before and after lunch on sustained attention. Neuropsychobiol,23:160-3.
  15. Smith A.P. (2005) Caffeine at work. Hum Psychopharmacol, 20:441-5.
  16. Smith A.P. (2009) Caffeine, cognitive failures and health in a non-working community sample. Hum Psychopharmacol, 24:29-34.
  17. Van Dongen H.P. et al. (2001) Caffeine eliminates psychomotor vigilance deficits from sleep inertia. Sleep, 24:813-9.
  18. Philip P. et al. (2006) The effects of coffee and napping on nighttime highway driving: a randomized trial. Ann Intern Med, 144:785-91.
  19. Mets M.A. et al. (2012) Effects of coffee on driving performance during prolonged simulated highway driving. Psychopharmacology, 222(2):337-42.
  20. Horne J. et al. (1999) Vehicle accidents related to sleep: a review. Occup Environ Med, 56:289-94.
  21. Reyner L.A. et al. (2000) Early morning driver sleepiness: effectiveness of 200 mg caffeine. Psychophysiol, 37:251-6.
  22. Sharwood L.N. et al. (2013) Use of caffeinated substances and risk of crashes in long distance drivers of commercial vehicles: case control study. BMJ, 346:1140.
  23. De Valck E. et al. (2001) Slow-release caffeine as a countermeasure to driver sleepiness induced by partial sleep deprivation. J Sleep Res, 10:203-9.
  24. Bosó P. et al. (2015) Coffee in the driving of vehicles: analysis of its effects on tired or drowsy drivers.
  25. Liguori A. et al. (2001) Caffeine antagonism of alcohol-induced driving impairment. Drug Alcohol Depend, 63:123-9.
  26. Nehlig A. (2010) Is Caffeine a Cognitive Enhancer? J Alzheimers Dis, 20(S1):85-94.
  27. Smillie L.D. et al. (2010) Caffeine enhances working memory for extraverts. Biol Psychol, 85:496-8.
  28. Capek S. et al. (2009) Caffeine’s effects on true and false memory. Psychol Rep, 104:787-95.
  29. Adan A. et al. (2010) Effects of caffeine and glucose, alone and combined, on cognitive performance. Hum Psychopharmacol, 25:310-7.
  30. Serra-Grabulosa J.M. et al. (2010) Glucose and caffeine effects on sustained attention: an exploratory fMRI study. Hum Psychopharmacol, 25:543-52.
  31. Scholey A. et al. (2014) Effects of two doses of glucose and a caffeine-glucose combination on cognitive performance and mood during multi-tasking. Hum Psychopharmacol, 29(5):434-5.
  32. Frijda N.H. (1993) ‘Moods, emotion episodes and emotions’ in ‘Handbook of Emotions’ Lewis M., Haviland J.M. eds., pp381-403. Guilford Press, New York.
  33. WHO, R63 Fact sheet on mental health, WHO Regional office for Europe. Available at:
  34. WHO, Data and Statistics Prevalence of Mental Health Disorders. Available at:
  35. Meeusen R. (2014) Exercise, Nutrition and the Brain. Sports Med, 44(1):47-56.
  36. Garcia-Blanco T. et al. (2016) Tea, cocoa, coffee, and affective disorders: vicious or virtuous cycle? J. Affect Disord, published online ahead of print.
  37. Wilhelmus M.M. et al. (2016) Effects of a single, oral 60mg caffeine dose on attention in healthy adult subjects. J Psychopharmacol, published online ahead of print.
  38. Judelson D.A. et al. (2013) Effects of Theobromine and Caffeine on Mood and Vigilance, J Clin Psychopharmacol, 33(4):499-506.
  39. Smit H.J. and Rogers P.J. (2006) Effects of caffeine on mood. In Caffeine and the activation theory. Effects on health and behavior, Smith B.D., Gupta U., Gupta B.S., eds, CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, pp. 229-82.
  40. Tallis J. et al. (2013) Assessment of the ergogenic effect of caffeine supplementation on mood, anticipation timing, and muscular strength in older adults. Physiol Reps, 1(3):e00072.
  41. Haskell C.F. et al. (2005) Cognitive and mood improvements of caffeine in habitual consumers and habitual non-consumers of caffeine. Psychopharmacol, 179:813-25.
  42. Misaizu A. et al. (2014) The Combined Effect of Caffeine and Ornithine on the Mood of Healthy Office Workers. Prev Nutr Food Sci. 19(4):367–372.
  43. Turnbull D. et al. (2016) Neurobehavioral hazard identification and characterization for caffeine. Regul Toxicol Pharmacol, 74:81-92.
  44. Ullrich S. et al. (2016) Feeling smart: Effects of caffeine and glucose on cognition, mood and self-judgment. Physiol Behav, 151:629-37.
  45. Maridakis V. et al. (2009) Sensitivity to change in cognitive performance and mood measures of energy and fatigue in response to morning caffeine alone or in combination with carbohydrate. Int J Neurosci, 119:1239-58.
  46. Cropley V. et al. (2012) Does coffee enriched with chlorogenic acids improve mood and cognition after acute administration in healthy elderly? A pilot study. Psychopharmacol, 219(3):737-49.
  47. Grosso G. et al. (2016) Coffee, tea, caffeine and risk of depression: a systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis of observational studies. Mol Nutr Food Res, 60(1):223-3.
  48. Lucas M. et al. (2011) Coffee, caffeine, and risk of depression among women. Arch Intern Med, 171:1571-8.
  49. Ruusunen A. et al. (2010) Coffee, tea and caffeine intake and the risk of severe depression in middle-aged Finnish men: the Kuopio Ischaemic Heart Disease Risk Factor Study. Public Health Nutr, 13:1215-20.
  50. Pham N.M. et al. (2013) Green tea and coffee consumption is inversely associated with depressive symptoms in a Japanese working population. Pub Health Nutr, 4:1-9.
  51. Park R.J. and Moon J.D. (2015) Coffee and depression in Korea: the fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Eur J Clin Nutr, 69(4):501-4.
  52. Tse W.S. et al. (2009) Caffeinated coffee enhances co-operative behavior in the Mixed Motive Game in healthy volunteers. Nutr Neurosci, 12:21-7.
  53. Maremmani I. et al. (2011) Are “social drugs” (tobacco, coffee and chocolate) related to the bipolar spectrum? J Affect Disord, 133:227-33.
  54. Strassnig M. et al. (2006) Increased caffeine and nicotine consumption in community-dwelling patients with schizophrenia. Schizophr Res, 86:269-75.
  55. Bhumiratana N. et al. (2014) The development of an emotion lexicon for the coffee drinking experience, Fd Res Int, 61:83-92.
  56. Giles G.E. et al. (2016) Caffeine accentuates emotional responses, not emotion regulation choice. FASEB Journal, 30(1) Supplement 898.
  57. Giles G.E. (2016) Caffeine and theanine exert opposite effects on attention under emotional arousal. Can J Physiol and Pharmacol, 95(1):93-100.
  58. Biaggioni I. et al. (1991) Caffeine and theophylline as adenosine receptor antagonists in humans. J Pharmacol & Exper Therap, 258(2):588-593.
  59. Volkow N.D. et al. (2015) Caffeine increases striatal dopamine D2/D3 receptor availablility in the human brain. Transl Psychiatry, 14(5):e549.
  60. Roehrs T. et al. (2008) Caffeine: sleep and daytime sleepiness. Sleep Med Rev, 12:153-62.
  61. Clark I. and Landolt H.P. (2016) Coffee, Caffeine, and Sleep. Sleep Med Rev, 31:70-78.
  62. Iber C. et al. (2007) The AASM manual for the scoring of sleep and associated events: rules, terminology and technical specifications. 1st ed. Westchester, IL: The American Academy of Sleep Medicine.
  63. Birkett D.J. et al. (1991) Caffeine renal clearance and urine caffeine concentrations during steady state dosing. Implications for monitoring caffeine intake during sports events. Br J Clin Pharmacol, 31:405-8.
  64. Retey J.V. et al. (2007) A genetic variation in the adenosine A2A receptor gene (ADORA2A) contributes to individual sensitivity to caffeine effects on sleep. Clin Pharmacol Ther, 81:692–8.
  65. Byrne E.M. et al. (2012) A genome-wide association study of caffeine related sleep disturbance: confirmation of a role for a common variant in the adenosine receptor. Sleep, 35(7):967-75.
  66. Cornelis M.C. et al. (2007) Genetic polymorphism of the adenosine A2A receptor is associated with habitual caffeine consumption. Am J Clin Nutr, 86:240–4.
  67. Drapeau C. et al. (2006) Challenging sleep in aging: the effects of 200 mg of caffeine during the evening in young and middle-aged moderate caffeine consumers. J Sleep Res, 15:133-41.
  68. Carrier J. et al. (2009) Effects of caffeine on daytime recovery sleep: A double challenge to the sleep-wake cycle in aging. Sleep Med, 10:1016-24.
  69. Robillard R. et al. (2015) Sleep is more sensitive to high doses of caffeine in the middle years of life. J Psychopharmacol, 29(6):688-97.
  70. Porkka-Heiskanen T. (2011) Methylxanthines and sleep. Handb Exp Pharmacol, (200):331-48.
  71. 72 Ogeil R.P. and Phillips J.G. (2015) Commonly used stimulants: Sleep problems, dependence and psychological distress. Drug & Alc Dep, 153:145-51.
  72. Drake C. et al. (2013) Caffeine Effects on Sleep Taken 0, 3, or 6 Hours before Going to Bed. J Clin Sleep Med, 9(11): 1195-1200.
  73. Sin C.W.M. et al. (2008) Systematic review on the effectiveness of caffeine abstinence on the quality of sleep. J Clin Nursing, 18:13-21.
  74. Snel J. et al. (2011) Effects of caffeine on sleep and cognition. Prog Brain Res, 190:105-17.
  75. Calamaro C.J. et al. (2009) Adolescents living the 24/7 lifestyle: effects of caffeine and technology on sleep duration and daytime functioning. Pediatrics, 123:e1005-10.
  76. Ludden A.B. et al. (2010) Understanding adolescent caffeine use: connecting use patterns with expectancies, reasons and sleep. Health Educ Behav, 37:330-342.
  77. Zunhammer M. et al. (2014) Sleep quality during exam stress: the role of alcohol, caffeine and nicotine. PLoS One, 9(10):e109490.
  78. Ker K. et al. (2010) Caffeine for the prevention of injuries and errors in shift workers. Cochrane Database Syst Rev, (5):CD008508.
  79. Schweitzer P.K. et al. (2006) Laboratory and field studies of naps and caffeine as practical countermeasures for sleep-wake problems associated with night work. Sleep, 29(1):39-50.
  80. Mc Hill A.W. et al. (2014) Effects of caffeine on skin and core temperatures, alertness, and recovery sleep during circadian misalignment. J Biol Rhythms, 29(2):131-43.
  81. Arendt J. (2009) Managing jet lag: Some of the problems and possible new solutions. Sleep Med Rev, 13:249-56.
  82. Nehlig A. (2004) Are we dependent on coffee and caffeine: an update. In Nehlig A, ed. Coffee, Tea, Chocolate and the Brain. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press;133-146.
  83. Satel S. (2006) Is caffeine addictive? A review of the literature. Am J Drug Alc Abuse, 32:493-502.
  84. Nehlig A. et al. (2000) Dose-response study of caffeine effects on cerebral functional activity with a specific focus on dependence. Brain Res, 858:71-77.
  85. Acquas E. et al. (2002) Differential effects of caffeine on dopamine and acetylcholine transmission in brain areas of drug-naive and caffeine-pretreated rats. Neuropsychopharmacol, 27:182-193.
  86. De Luca M.A. et al. (2007) Caffeine and accumbens shell dopamine. J Neurochem, 103:157-163.
  87. Nehlig A. et al. (2010) SPECT assessment of brain activation induced by caffeine: no effect on areas involved in dependence. Dialogues Clin Neurosci, 12:255-63.
  88. American Psychiatric Association (2013) Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM V) ISBN 978-0-89042-554-1DSMV.
  89. Sigmon S.C. et al. (2009) Caffeine withdrawal, acute effects, tolerance, and absence of net beneficial effects of chronic administration: cerebral blood flow velocity, quantitative EEG, and subjective effects. Psychopharmacol (Berl), 204:573-85.
  90. Addicott M.A. et al. (2009) A comparison of the effects of caffeine following abstinence and normal caffeine use. Psychopharmacol (Berl), 207:423-31
  91. Addicott M.A. et al. (2009) The effect of daily caffeine use on cerebral blood flow: How much caffeine can we tolerate? Hum Brain Mapp, 30:3102-14.

This information is intended for Healthcare professional audiences.
Please consider the environment before printing.