Conclusions

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A number of factors can affect bone health, and bone mineral density in particular such as gender, diet, physical activity and exposure to sunlight.

The variability in results from studies and meta analyses make it difficult to draw conclusions about a role for caffeine in bone health, although some evidence suggests there may be an association between coffee consumption and risk of hip fracture particularly in older women.

Therefore, current data are insufficient to reach a convincing conclusion and further research needs to be conducted.

This information is intended for Healthcare professional audiences.
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